Excavation is the process of moving earth, rock or other materials with tools, equipment or explosives. It includes earthwork, trenching, wall shafts, tunneling and underground. Excavation has a number of important applications including exploration, environmental restoration, mining and construction. Among these, construction is one of the most common applications for excavation. Excavation is used in construction to create building foundations, reservoirs, and roads.
Some of the different processes used in excavation include trenching, digging, dredging and site development. Each of these processes requires unique techniques, tools, and machinery to get the job done right. The processes used will depend upon the structure that will result from the construction process.